Thursday, August 27, 2020
Petition in Public Schools - Essay Example Petition in schools has been bantered for a serious significant stretch of time now. This is on the grounds that supplications are extremely near oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and ought to be regarded for the connection that a kid (or so far as that is concerned an individual) has with his God. There is positively nobody else to fill the relationship as it is a two-overlay interface and can't be viewed as inadequate in any way shape or form. Subsequently approaching the youngsters to ask only for satisfying a condition is illicit and doesn't carry legitimate equity to the domains of opportunity. Despite the fact that the youthful ones find out about religion, it is absolutely up to them regarding how they need to see their reality and their God basically. The perspective that becomes visible here is that imploring in schools is led since understudies are being molded into picking up something otherworldly. What the educators and the school specialists are overlooking basically is that it can't be imbued into a kid on the off chance that he has not been instructed about such subtleties from his home (Bergel, 1988). There must be a gap here in light of the fact that petition is something that is extremely near oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and no substitute answers appear to exist or come to fruition for appreciating similar standards. Further, since the understudies leave the class during petition timings, both the guardians and the instructors would be against this marvel. No educator might want his understudies to leave the class at basic points of the talks or meetings (Hannabuss, 2011). Consequently it is consistently a hint of something to look forward to think about these exercises considering development and improvement instead of preferring or disfavoring a specific religion or society so far as that is concerned. In the event that this is done, achievement would consequently be accomplished inside the discussion of supplications in schools. It would be a sound exhortation to have an impartial supplication in the first part of the day instead of a petition that is slanted towards a particular religion. This nonpartisan supplication would tell the understudies that humanity is a higher priority than bad habit and consequently goodness will stay preeminent regardless of how troublesome the occasions are and what the world thinks about these situations that continue coming about from time to time.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Investigation of Local Government Finances in Multan District Unique Open fund manages the budgetary administration of open substances. This paper gives a diagram of the monetary issues of nearby administration of locale Multan and recognizes issues looked by the frameworks to convey productively and successfully. It likewise features territories or improvement and chances to subsidize these exercises. The locale government vigorously depends on the common awards and has exceptionally constrained self created income. In spite of the fact that it is dependable to oversee different organizations of social administrations and do formative exercises in the area, its dependence on commonplace awards put forth its attempt less powerful. TMA then again have huge income age and utilize this furthering their potential benefit and work with self-governance. Anyway they despite everything depend on commonplace awards for any formative exercises. The stale business procedure and obstacles in the legitimate structure likewise contribute altogether towards the in p roductivity of the frameworks. There are arrangements that can help pivot the circumstance yet it needs a genuine exertion on part the common and nearby government. Robotization and legitimate changes could cover a great deal of issues. They would expand effectiveness as well as would help reduce defilement at different levels. Anyway solid political could change the scene inside and out. A far reaching process was embraced in gathering optional information through legitimate archives, format and gatherings with authorities. Locale Multan was picked because of its significance uniquely in the current political arrangement and dependent on comfort. Presentation Regardless of some humble accomplishments, the financial and social advancement in Pakistan has been a long way from good during the last over five many years of autonomy. Normal yearly development pace of 6.8, 4.8, 6.5 and 4.6% (Government of Pakistan, 2003) individually in the times of 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s isn't similar with the fast financial advancement made by South Korea, Malaysia, China and numerous different nations which were at first at about a similar degree of monetary turn of events (or even beneath) as that of Pakistan. The exhibition on social pointers has been gloomier. Regardless of normal figures for financial development, numerous nations like Vietnam and Cuba have had the option to destroy absence of education and have accomplished wellbeing insights practically identical with created nations (Zaidi, 2000). Pakistan despite everything positions at the last part of social improvement positioning. Pakistan is additionally a signatory to the Millennium Declaration, a milestone occasion indicating responsibility of political, corporate and common society administration to dispose of outrageous appetite and neediness and to improve instruction, wellbeing, sex and condition circumstance through worldwide associations for advancement. An investigation of the advancement accomplished on accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shows that the presentation of Pakistan has not been vital in the time of 90s. There has been a progressive assembly of feeling among all partners Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" government, common society just as worldwide improvement accomplices Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" that the disappointment in social divisions is an immediate result of the emergency of administration and full scale monetary irregular characteristics. Further, there is a wide accord that administration can't be improved without a significant devolution of power to practical levels and without gu aranteeing people groups investment in dynamic procedures at all levels. This partner accord gave the important catalyst to the current government to present its devolution changes imagined in 2000 and propelled all the while in all areas of Pakistan through presentation of Local Government Ordinances in 2001. Until the proclamation of Local Government Ordinances, the chosen nearby government levels had an unsafe presence relying on the desire of the common governments. Commonly these eventual disintegrated and un-chose executives named. Working under the ambit of Local government Ordinances of 1979, there were urban and country nearby committees. While urban nearby gatherings comprised of Metropolitan/Municipal Corporations and Municipal/Town advisory groups, the provincial committees were called District Councils and Union Councils. Customarily the neighborhood committees in Pakistan have performed metropolitan capacities like water flexibly, sanitation, strong waste administration, putting out fires, upkeep of butcher houses, advancement of cows markets, fairs and presentations and road lighting. They additionally had fluctuating jobs in essential and preventive human services, maternal and youngster wellbeing, advancement of proficiency and rustic framework improvement. Devolution changes in Pakistan, presented by the proclamation of Local Government Ordinances of 2001 have given a 3-level nearby government framework comprising of District Government (DG), Tehsil/Town Municipal Administration (TMA) and Union Administrations (UA). Working under the heading and control of chose gatherings and Nazims, the current nearby government framework endeavors to make establishments and components for open cooperation in structure, the executives, observing and control of social help conveyance. Huge numbers of the capacities recently performed by the nearby workplaces of common government divisions currently obviously fall inside the area of DGs. These changes are expected to expand neighborhood governments duty regarding proficient and viable social and city administrations conveyance. Metropolitan capacities with a more extensive degree are being done by Town Municipal Administrations and City District Governments (set up at first in common central command ye t accordingly in chose large urban communities also). Access to sufficient assets for the neighborhood governments is currently viewed as fundamental. Extra monetary space is required for improved designations for the social part just as foundation advancement. These assets are likewise required to meet the social shortages that have collected over the past because of deficient financing combined with low use in social segments. Devolution changes, as initially imagined and enunciated, conceived huge scope financial decentralization to follow the managerial and political decentralization. While a monetary relationship has been manufactured between the territory and the locale, a broad rearrangement of assets has not occurred and the vertical money related irregularity remains set up with the major budgetary assortments being made at the government (and to a lesser degree at the common) level. Then again, the administration arrangement has fallen at the DG level where the assessment base and assortment potential is the most minimal. Civility: Decentralization Support Program, Role Book: 4-day workshop for chose neighborhood leadershipResultantly, the greatest test confronting the nearby gatherings in Pakistan (which are increasingly engaged today and have a more extensive extent of capacities than at any other time) is to guarantee steady, dependable and idiot proof components of moves from common governments and to grow own source incomes so as to offer proficient and viable assistance conveyance as conceived in devolution changes. Open FinanceÃ£âÃ¢ is that piece of fund which drifts around the focal inquiry of distribution of assets exposed to the spending limitation of the administration or open elements. It is that part of financial matters which distinguishes and assesses the methods and impacts of the arrangements of the administration. Open division fund attempts to look at the impacts and outcomes of various sorts of tax collection and consumptions on the financial operators (people, foundations, associations, and so forth.) of the general public and at last on the whole economy. Open fund likewise breaks down the adequacy of the strategies focused on specific targets and thus to the advancement of methodology and procedures for expanding the viability of the arrangement (Economy Watch, 2010). Writing Review A significant part of the practical self-sufficiency of the neighborhood governments relies on their capacity to raise the necessary assets from their own sources and to get the parity from the common/government through steady and guaranteed components. This requires not just concocting institutional components for recipe and standards based monetary exchanges yet in addition investigating income possibilities of nearby own source incomes. These own source incomes can be as charges and expenses for administrations gave. It is very astonishing that in spite of the noteworthiness of this, not many neighborhood contemplates have been completed to analyze the asset capability of the nearby bodies in Pakistan. Neediness Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) of Pakistan, defined after significant discussion and contribution from every single significant partner, concedes that the nearby governments rely essentially on monetary exchanges from common governments and perceives the requirement for neighborhood income activation as a significant action for the manageability of nearby government framework. Components saturated with political economy and world class structures have affected neighborhood income age choices. Howe and Reeb (1997) directing an overview of the nearby duty framework in USA since the pilgrim times have discovered that financial and political contemplations have affected the assessment frameworks. Winged animal (2000) gives the alluring attributes of a neighborhood charge. To begin with, the assessment base ought to be generally stationary so neighborhood governments can fluctuate the rates without losing a critical segment of the base. Second, the expense yield ought to be satisfactory to meet the neighborhood needs, increment additional time as consumption increments, and be generally steady and unsurprising. Third, the assessment ought to be one that isn't anything but difficult to fare to non occupants. Fourth, the assessment base ought to be noticeable to guarantee responsibility. Fifth, the citizens ought to see the assessment to be sensibly reasonable. 6th, the expense ought to be sensibly simple to oversee. As per Bird (1999), universal experience
Friday, August 21, 2020
8 Most Creative Entrepreneurs in History © Shutterstock.com | BloomuaIn this article, you will learn about 1) the key characteristics of entrepreneurs and 2) a list of the most creative entrepreneurs in history.CHARACTERISTICS OF ENTREPRENEURSWhat do these creative entrepreneurs, who have made significant contributions and indelible marks in history have in common?They are inventors and innovators.There is a clear distinction between an inventor and an innovator (or an invention and an innovation) that is not often seen by many people, thinking that they are one and the same. Invention is the creation â" or introduction for the first time â" of something completely new and has not been seen anywhere in the world, ever. It could be something tangible like a product, tool, or equipment, or intangible such as a process or service. Meanwhile, innovation is the process of coming up with something new, but is primarily an improvement, enhancement or modification of an existing product or process, thereby increasing its value.T he creative entrepreneurs that we will be looking at later in this article are either inventors or innovators, or both. Their creations have left such a huge impact, even long after they have died or stepped away and ceased involvement with their inventions or innovations.They are risk-takers.They are not averse to entertaining what-if questions, but they do not let uncertainties dissuade them. They are cognizant of the fact that nothing is certain, and they will not know what will happen unless they try or do first. Taking risks comes natural to these creative entrepreneurs.They are passionate about their chosen causes.When they get an idea, they are dogged about pursuing it. You will note that, even at an early age, these entrepreneurs already have certain interests that they focused on even later in life. Alexander Graham Bell had great interest for sound and the human voice, and it went on to influence his later inventions, most notably the telephone.They used what they are good at.Itâs a perfect representation of âdoing what you loveâ or what you are interested in. These entrepreneurs mostly grew up having deep interest in several things, and they carried these on in later years, cultivating that interest to go into business. Whether it is a passion for sound, solving problems, or anything electrical, they all had one thing in common: they want to create.Wanna know whether you are a real entrepreneur? Answer the questions in this presentation and find out.[slideshare id=56998980doc=areyouentrepreneurmaloomaat-160113104458w=640h=330]1. THOMAS ALVA EDISON © Wikimedia Commons | Louis Bachrach, Bachrach Studios, restored by Michel VuijlstekeThomas Alva Edison will forever be known as âthat guy who invented the incandescent lightbulb and the phonographâ and the one who said the famous quote, âGenius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspirationâ. But this American inventor was more than that; he was also one of the savviest businessmen and entrepreneur of his time, coming out with inventions and innovations that have become so widespread, their benefits are still being reaped â" in large doses â" to this day. He was the founder of the giant General Electric Corporation (formerly Edison General Electric), and also owned Edison Manufacturing, Edison Studios (a film studio).This Ohio native did not have formal education; he was mostly self-educated, which is very impressive, considering the long list of his accomplishments and contributions. In his lifetime â" he was born February 11, 1847 and died October 18, 1931 â" he had more than 1,000 patents to his name, and thatâs in the United States alone. His first innovation, at the age of 22, was the Universal Stock Printer, a stock ticker that is also said to be the first broadcast system to run on electricity. Through this, he was able to improve the existing stock ticker by making some transactions synchronized. This was purchased by the Gold and Stock Telegraph Company, and Edison used the proceeds from the sale to set up a small laboratory where he could continue inventing. He also resigned from his day job as a telegraph operator.From there, he continued inventing, and even dipping his toes in various industries, such as mining, mass communication, military weapons, and motion picture.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Forming numerous partnerships with industry leaders. At first, Edison was an independent entrepreneur with only a small laboratory and few machinists. He recognized that he did not have enough resources to go at i t alone, so he formed partnerships with large companies, and worked on inventing and developing products for whoever among these partner companies had the highest bid.Application of mass production. Edison was credited to be one of the first inventors to integrate the concepts of mass production to invention. As a result, he was able to create the first ever industrial research laboratory, setting it up in West Orange, New Jersey.Development of systems for illumination using electrical power. He was one of the first to develop a system for the generation and distribution of electrical power to residences, businesses, and industries. This later became known as the General Electric Corporation.Turning failures into successes. Edison developed a method for processing magnetic iron ore, but this turned out to be a dismal failure. He did not entirely give up on it, though, and instead modified the method, until he was able to come up with a better cement production method.Military-relate d projects. Edison worked on more than a handful projects for the U.S. government, primarily on the invention of defensive tools and weapons that can be used by the US military. He is credited for inventing submarine detectors and introducing gun-location techniques.Other inventions and innovations:Storage battery for the self-starter on Ford Companyâs Model T car (1912)Carbon microphone transmitter for telephones (1878)Fluoroscope used by X-rays to capture radiographs (1890s)The âKinetographâ, a motion picture camera, and the âKinetoscopeâ, a peep-hole viewer (1891)Vitascope, a motion picture projector (1896)2. ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL © Wikimedia CommonsWhenever the telephone rings, we rarely â" if ever â" remember the guy who started it all: Alexander Graham Bell. Come to think of it, those ringtones we use on our mobile phones had their start in that first ever telephone ringing sound that Bell was able to produce when he invented the telephone and made the first call.Originally from Scotland, Bell was born on March 3, 1847 and died on August 2, 1922 with 30 patents to his name, 12 of which are shared with co-inventors. Even at a young age, he has shown an amazing aptitude for experimentation and solving problems, and a passion for studying sound and the human voice. He took this up as the focus of his attention when he moved to Canada in 1870. By joining forces with an electrician named Thomas Watson, they successfully created the first voice transmitting device â" the telephone â" in 1876. The success of this invention led Bell to establish the Bell Telephone Company.Most notable contributions or accompli shments as an entrepreneur:Despite the fact that Bell did not consider himself a businessman in the strictest sense of the word, his accomplishments show his grit as an entrepreneur, particularly in the fields of telecommunications and aeronautics.Development of flying machines. Through the Aerial Experiment Association he co-founded with several associates in 1907, Bell introduced the Silver Dart, the first powered machine that was flown over parts of Canada.Improvement of hydrofoil design. He also set out to make modifications on the hydrofoil, focusing on its speed capability. He succeeded when he was able to set a world record for the fastest hydrofoil at the time, clocking 70.86 miles per hour.Other inventions and innovations:A photophone, or a wireless telephone (1880), which became the precursor of modern fiber-optic communication systemsAn early version of a metal detector (1881)3. STEVE JOBS © Wikimedia Commons | Matthew YoheWhen we speak of revolutionizing technology, there is no better example of that than Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple Computers, which came out with some of the most innovative products and inspired future innovations in computing and mobile technology.He was only 21 years old when he founded Apple with his partner Steve Wozniak in their family garage. They had a shared passion for electronics and computer design, and their vision was to make computing more accessible to more users by making computers and computing machines smaller and compact, more intuitive and user-friendly, and cheaper than the other computers at the time.Jobsâ history with the company he co-founded was quite rocky. Their first products â" the Apple I and Apple II â" were successes, but the next releases were not so much, especially when IBM entered the picture and took the lionâs share of the computer market. Jobs was also edged out of Apple, and he left in 1985. He pr oceeded on his own ventures, including setting up Pixar Animation Studios.Jobs returned to Apple in 1997 as CEO and this is when the company started its âgolden ageâ. He died at the age of 56 on October 5, 2011, after a long battle with pancreatic cancer. It was a short life, but his accomplishments and contributions have made him an icon and one of the greatest innovators and entrepreneurs of all time.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Revitalization of Apple Company. The first thing that Jobs did when he was reinstalled as CEO was to instigate changes to the existing organizational structure and system. This included putting a new management team in place and even opted to have a $1 annual salary. He also focused on the companyâs branding campaigns and reiterated the emphasis of being âstylishâ and âsophisticatedâ in Appleâs product designs.A very long list of revolutionary products. They are, among others. The Macbook Air, the iPod, t he iPhone, and iTunes.4. WALT DISNEY © Wikimedia Commons | Boy Scouts of AmericaMany people easily identify Walt Disney as a filmmaker, and the creator of the Disneyland theme parks. But we should give credit to where it is due, because Disney did more than build theme parks and produce movies.Walter Elias Disney spent his younger years in Chicago, Illinois, drawing and painting pictures and selling them to friends and neighbors. He took this further by taking formal classes in drawing and photography. His work experience included being a contributing cartoonist for a local newspaper, making commercials using cutout animation, and even an ambulance driver for the Red Cross during a short stint in France.Disney set up a small animation business and released several cartoon series, such as Laugh-O-Grams and Alice in Cartoonland. However, it did not last long, as they had to declare bankruptcy when the studio was not able to repay all its debts. He took this as his cue to move to Hollywood with his brother, and they set u p the Disney Brothersâ Studio. They had a met a few snags at first, but it wasnât until Walt created âMickey Mouseâ that everything took off.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Mickey and friends. While working on several cartoons, Disney had been developing another character he called âMickey Mouseâ. When one of his previous characters â" Oswald the Lucky Rabbit â" was stolen by their distributor, he focused on making Mickey the star of their succeeding animated short cartoons. He even used his own voice as the voice of Mickey in the animated short Steamboat Willie, and Mickey Mouse became a huge hit. But that did not end there, because Disney went on to introduce several more characters as the friends of Mickey Mouse, including Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy and Pluto.Pioneering contributions in animation and motion picture industry. Disney was the first to produce animated cartoons in color via Flowers and Trees. It went on to win an Oscar Award. In 1937, the company also produced the first full-length animated movie, Snow White and the Seven Dwarves.Disneyland theme parks. The first Disneyland theme park, which was built in Anaheim, California, was formally opened on July 17, 1955. Its main draws were attractions and rides that were inspired by movies and characters produced by Walt Disneyâs company. It has now become a chain, with Disneyland theme parks in Europe and Asia.5. BILL GATES © Flickr | Masaru KamikuraIt is safe to say that computers, as we know it, would not be what it is today if not for William Henry Gates III. Most of the world knows Bill Gates as one of the richest men alive, and that he amassed his wealth from having founded Microsoft, which is undisputedly the largest software business in the world. But behind the businessman and the philanthropist is one of the most creative entrepreneurs the world has ever seen.Gates started to become interested in computer programming at a very young age, pursuing it in college. It was still during his high school years when he first went into business, in partnership with his friend and schoolmate Paul Allen. Together, they developed a traffic pattern monitoring computer program that they called âTraf-o-Dataâ. This partnership was carried on to college, until Gates decided to quit Harvard and set up the company they called âMicrosoftâ. This was in 1975.The start of Microsoft was shaky in the beginning. They started by developing software for Altair computers of Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems or MITS. The two companies parted ways in 1977 and in 1978, Gates moved the center of operations of Microsoft to Bellevue, Washington.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Establishing a good team. Gates knew what the company needed, so he handpicked the members of his team very well, matching their skill sets with the tasks. He made it a point that all members of the team are knowledgeable about, and have responsibilities, in all aspects of the organization, ranging from product development, marketing, and overall operation of the business.Software development. Microsoft Windows is undoubtedly the most notable contribution of Gates and his company to the world. This was also the perfect example of how much of a risk-taker Gates was. In 1993, he made the announcement about Microsoft currently working on an operating system that uses a graphic interface and will be compatible with all PC software products that are developed using MS-DOS when, in reality, no such system was under development. This, however, increased anticipation for the new system, and attempts by other software developers of a similar system pretty much failed or did not pan out. It was only after making the announcement that Microsoft did get on the development of Windows until, finally, it was launched in 1995.6. JEFF BEZOS © Flickr | John FischerWe cannot talk about modern business and commerce without mentioning Amazon, currently the largest e-commerce portal and marketplace in the world, and the brains behind the whole operation: Jeff Bezos.Jeff Bezos is credited for being the one who pioneered e-commerce when he founded Amazon.com, initially as an online bookstore. He, too, was interested in computers, and would later study electrical engineering and computer science in college. For a while, he worked at Wall Street, and even became the youngest vice president in a Wall Street investment company. But that was not where his interest lies, so he quit his job â" lucrative though it is â" and took a risk. He started developing Amazon.com.Amazon.com officially opened on July 16, 1995, and it became a worldwide sensation in just over a month. Granted, Amazon.com was not the first e-commerce site at that time, as other retailers also had their own online stores. However, Amazon.com was able to come out on top.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Making Amazon an e-commerce leader. It started out as a virtual bookstore, but it soon diversified its offerings, branching out into electronics, music, toys, clothing, and more.Innovation on tablets. The Kindle and its succeeding versions were Amazonâs attempts to enter the marketplace for tablets, which was dominated by Appleâs iPad series.7. LARRY PAGE © Wikimedia Commons | Stansfield PLâGoogleâ is one of the most recognizable names and brands today, so much so that almost everybody now uses it even as a verb. If you want to know something about anything, all you have to do is Google it.The creative entrepreneur behind this phenomenon is Larry Page, undisputedly one of the best internet entrepreneurs the computing world has ever seen. He is, first and foremost, a computer scientist, having studied computer engineering when he attended Stanford University.Together with his friend Sergey Brin, Page set up a search engine that âlisted results according to popularity of the pagesâ. This was in 1998, and they called it Google. Today, it is the most popular and widely used search engine, and the company itself has now become a conglomerate, having purchased YouTube.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Revolutionizing how search engines work. Working on the assumption that the most popular pages are th e most relevant and useful ones, Page and Brin developed Google.Acquisitions, mergers and partnerships. One of the most relevant examples is Googleâs acquisition of YouTube in 2006. This brought about the merger of two internet behemoths: the largest search engine and the largest streaming site. Some of the other notable partnerships that Page made include that with Sun Microsystems and American Online (AOL). It has also acquired Motorola Mobility as part of its efforts to solidify its footing in mobile development, particularly using its Android operating system.8. MARK ZUCKERBERG © Flickr | Alessio JaconaArguably, Mark Zuckerberg is the most popular internet personality, and a success story that a film was made about him and his founding of what is now the largest social networking website, Facebook.Thanks to Facebook, Zuckerberg became one of the youngest billionaires in the world, and his story goes a long way back, even when he was a young boy creating computer games just for the fun of it. He was only 12 years old when he successfully created a computer messaging program that he called âZucknetâ. While studying at Harvard, he continued developing software and programs and, on June 2004, he and his friends ran âThe Facebookâ from his Harvard dorm room.Most notable contributions or accomplishments as an entrepreneur:Retaining Facebookâs identity. Despite receiving very lucrative and tempting offers from companies such as Yahoo! and MTV, Zuckerberg opted to expand Facebook instead, letting other developers work with him on the project.Continuous e xpansion of Facebook. Zuckerberg and his team are continuously improving the features of Facebook, adding to it, and enhancing the ones that already exist. No wonder it now has over 1.5 billion active users monthly.Image credit: Wikimedia Commons | Louis Bachrach, Bachrach Studios, restored by Michel Vuijlsteke under the public domain, Wikimedia Commons under the public domain, Wikimedia Commons | Matthew Yohe under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, Wikimedia Commons | Boy Scouts of America under the public domain, Flickr | Masaru Kamikura under Attribution 2.0 Generic, Flickr | John Fischer (adapted) under Attribution 2.0 Generic, Wikimedia Commons | Stansfield PL under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, Flickr | Alessio Jacona (adapted) under Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic.
Monday, May 25, 2020
The reviewed article reports the findings of a self-reported study of how mothers of children with down syndrome feel about noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT), especially the impact they think it will have on their families and other families with children who have down syndrome. NIPT is a highly sensitive blood test that allows doctors to detect Down syndrome early on in pregnancy with no risk of miscarriage, therefore increasing the number of pregnancies identified with Down syndrome. Seventy-three mothers of children with Down syndrome responded to an anonymous survey that was posted on and emailed to users of message boards of various Down syndrome networks and support groups. Fifty-nine percent of the mothers indicated they would useÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, given NIPTÃ¢â¬â¢s highly sensitive results and no risk to the fetus, its use is expected to grow dramatically in the near future. There is some concern that an increase in NIPT could lead to decreased births of children with Down syndrome therefore leading to a decrease in social support and services for those who have Down syndrome and their families. Since NIPT has the potential to significantly impact the down syndrome community it is important to understand their respective views. This study assesses both current attitudes towards NIPT and what impact mothers of children with Down syndrome think increased use of NIPT in the future will have on their families and other families with children who have Down syndrome. Method Sample Self-reported mothers of children with Down syndrome. A link to the online survey was emailed to users of and posted on the message boards of regional and local Down syndrome support groups between October and December 2012. Instrumentation The survey began with a short description of NIPT. It was described as a test that Ã¢â¬Å"can diagnose some chromosome differences, like Down syndrome, earlier in pregnancyÃ¢â¬ and as a test that does Ã¢â¬Å"NOT have a risk of miscarriage and is very accurate.Ã¢â¬ The description included options available to women if a chromosome abnormality was found during testing, including termination of pregnancy and expectantShow MoreRelated Prenatal Diagnostic Tests and the Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications1805 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPrenatal Diagnostic Tests and the Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications Introduction Jackie and Michael are expecting their first baby. Jackie is 32 years old and is in good health. She is 15 weeks pregnant and wants to do everything possible to ensure a healthy baby. Even though they do not have risk factors within their families, she and Michael decide to have an amniocentesis. The results indicate that their baby is a female with Turner Syndrome. This condition is caused by a missing
Thursday, May 14, 2020
You can make this non-sticky, edible slime from two easy-to-find ingredients. It can be used as ectoplasm for Halloween costumes, haunted houses, and Halloween parties. Ectoplasm Slime Materials You only need two ingredients to make the basic slime, though you can add coloring to make the slime any combination of colors that you like or to make it glow in the dark. 1 teaspoon soluble fiber (e.g., Metamucil psyllium fiber)8 ounces (1 cup) waterFood coloring (optional)Glow paint or pigment (optional) Make Your Ectoplasm Pour the water and fiber into a large microwave-safe bowl.Microwave the ectoplasm on high power for 3 minutes.Ã¢â¬â¹Stir the ectoplasm. Return it to the microwave and heat it for another 3 minutes.Stir the ectoplasm and check its consistency. If you want drier ectoplasm, microwave the ectoplasm another minute or two. Continue checking the ectoplasm and microwaving it until you achieve the desired consistency.Add a drop of food coloring and/or some glow paint, if desired. Youll get an interesting effect if you incompletely mix the coloring into the ectoplasm, such as multicolored ectoplasm or ectoplasm slime with glowing streaks.Store the ectoplasm in a sealed baggie to prevent dehydration. The slime will last for a week or longer, as long as you keep it from drying out. Safety and Clean Up Made with fiber, water, and food coloring, the ectoplasm slime is safe enough to eat (but might not taste great). If you make the slime glow, check the product details to determine the safety of the slime. If will likely be non-toxic, but not edible. This slime is not sticky, so clean up should be as easy as wiping it off surfaces. If it gets onto clothing or carpets, use warm, soapy water. Bleach may be required to remove stains caused by food coloring,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
PHYSICAL DATABASE DESIGN EXAMPLES Example 1 Ã¢â¬â Consider the following relational database for the Super Baseball League. It keeps track of teams in the league, coaches and players on the teams, work experience of the coaches, bats belonging to each team, and which players have played on which teams. Note the following facts about this environment: The database keeps track of the history of all of the teams that each player has played on and all of the players who have played on each team. The database only keeps track of the current team that a coach works for. Team number, team name, and player number are each unique attributes across the league. Coach name is only unique within a team (and we assume that a team cannot have twoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Team Number field. ii. The Player Name field. b) Construct a B+-tree index of the type shown in this chapter for the Player file, assuming that now there are many more records than are shown above. The file and the index have the following characteristics: The file is stored on eight cylinders of the disk. The highest key values on the eight cylinders, in order, are: Cylinder 1: 1427 Cylinder 2: 1965 Cylinder 3: 2848 Cylinder 4: 3721 Cylinder 5: 4508 Cylinder 6: 5396 Cylinder 7: 6530 Cylinder 8: 7442 Each index record can hold four key value/pointer pairs. There are three index records at the lowest level of the tree index. c) The same as part b above, but now there are four index records at the lowest level of the tree index. d) The same as part b above, but each index record can hold two key value/pointer pairs and there are four index records at the lowest level of the tree index. Answer - a) Simple linear index. i. (Based on Team Number.) 12 1 12 3 12 8 15 9 18 5 18 6 20 4 20 7 35 2 35 10 ii. (Based on Player Name.) Barry Morton 10 Chico Lopez 8 Chris Vernon 9 Dave Lester 6 Fred Williams 1 Juan Gomez 3 Rod Smith 7 Steve
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Shangri-La Hotel Sydney Home Marketing Strategies. Answer: Introduction Companies in the hotel and tourism industry are increasingly utilizing the concept of home to enhance marketing and hospitality experiences. Managers adopt home attributes to design, market, and deliver augmented services to customers. This practice is influenced by increased awareness of diversity around the globe and the need to create a unique positioning that can earn competitive advantages. The contemporary market environment is turbulent, and firms can counter competition from global rivals through differentiation strategies such as embracing national heritage. Hotels all over the world use home attributes to create a strong attachment with locals in host countries as well as attract foreigners to enjoy new experiences. Global hotel firms such as Shangri-La group need to incorporate more home elements like other accommodation providers to cope with trends and competition levels. Information about the use of home concepts can give insights for improving the Shangri-La hotel comm ercial practices. Therefore, exploring how other hotel players integrate home ideas would help to formulate appropriate recommendations for adoption and implementation in the Shangri-La Hotel Sydney. Shangri-La Hotel Background Information Shangri-La Hotel Sydney is one of the hotels operated by the Shangri-La Group. The group manages five-star hotels and resorts all over the world. The Shangri-La brand was born in Singapore before expanding to other Asian countries and parts of the world including Europe, North America, and Middle East (Shangri-La International Hotel Management Ltd. 2016). Shangri-La hotels are situated in prime cities and offer luxury services to their customers. The Sydney hotel is among the leading hospitality firms in the city. Its location gives visitors a clear view of the glowing Opera House and the majestic Harbor Bridge. Customers can also enjoy the spectacle look of the citys exuberant colors from the hotel. The hotel offers a variety of world-class services and facilities. Facilities include hospitality lounge, business center, and conferences rooms among others. Services offered include laundry, postal, shoe-shine, and check-in facilities, among others. The hotel also has children care fac ilities, travel and transport services to airports, and shopping places (Shangri-La International Hotel Management Ltd. 2016). Shangri-La Hotel provides a range of food and beverages in service rooms, all-time restaurants, a bar, and a lounge. Cuisines and drinks from local and international places are available. Check-in rooms and meeting suites are fitted with contemporary furnishings and signature materials. The hotel attains world-class services and is a preferred choice for many locals as well as foreigners visiting Sydney. However, it does not apply home concepts extensively to promote marketing activities like in other hotels. Use of Home Concepts in Other Hotels Hotels employ various features of home heritage to support their business operations and attract more customers. One way of achieving these activities is through the provision of local cuisines (Enz 2011). The local food dishes and beverages differ from those in other countries due to cultural diversity and environmental conditions. Culture influences the food preferences as well as methods of preparation. Since Australian culture is different from that of foreigners, local dishes and drinks are also different. Although globalization is transforming Australian cultures, providing traditional foods in hotels attract locals and foreigners to enjoy. People visiting Australia would want to enjoy local dishes and beverages that are not available in their home countries. Visitors are also excited to learn methods of cooking as a way of understanding Australian food cultures (Wyshak 2014). The ingredients used differ or are not available in other communities, and offering local dishes enabl es visitors to enjoy new food substances. Hotels seeking to attract more customers incorporate the local foods in their menu (Lehr 2015). Additionally, their commercials include these local cuisines as part of what they offer. Potential customers access this information and make plans to visit. By doing this, the hotels create awareness to the global community and reap improved revenues from new clients. Another way of utilizing home advantages includes supporting local and cultural functions. Hotel industry plays important role in facilitating social activities such as cultural celebrations, beauty contests, or music festivals, among others (Chu 2014). Hotels host the events or individuals participating in such activities. During these periods, the hotels utilize the opportunities to pass information about their services. For instance, hotels carry out commercials in conjunction with event organizers. Hotels that facilitate major occasions benefit by reaching many people. Some local events attract foreigners or people from far regions in the country who check-in hotels near the venues. As a result, hotels that work together with the event organizers stand a better chance of hosting visitors and boost revenues (Rao 2014). The visitors would refer friends to these hotels hence promoting marketing campaigns. Hospitality firms also sponsor events through monetary contributions or provis ion of other equipment such as kits. Hotels that engage in local activities create rapport with the people who support its continued operations. Thus, participating in local events enables hotels to market their services to the populations in host countries and increase the likelihood of success. Some hotels exploit the power of corporate social responsibility practices that involve home attributes. CSR is becoming a common practice for companies in the hotel industry. These programs are instrumental in marketing a firm to the locals (Bunda 2014). The public can identify with a hotel that adopts plans to give back to the society and support its continued operations. The CSR events create a long-lasting positive perception about an organization. This positive image is desirable to help the hotel enjoy support of the locals. Some hotels operate in a global environment and lack strong local attachment. As a result, domestic customers can opt to seek services in local firms. CSR activities help the public to view a global company as one of their own (Scott 2009). There are many forms of CSR practices adopted by different hotels. Examples include giving donations to benevolent centers, providing material support during disasters, and sponsoring sport events. Many people can resona te with these practices and in turn, visit the hotels and take items or services offered. Hotels also utilize concepts of home by linking services provided to physical features and unique attributes in their surroundings. Hotels located in strategic places or near important structures take advantage of associating with them to market their services (Oh, Pizam 2008). Fascinating and spectacle scenery is desirable to customers, and hotels that have a beautiful environment attract more visitors. Hotels are recognizing the beautiful elements near their premises and use them to promote marketing performances. For instance, hospitality firms near elegant buildings or seas link these features to service experiences for their clients. Potential customers learn about these structures through marketing activities of the hotel company and plan visits to go and enjoy. As the customers view the scenery around these hotels, they stay and consume meals or other services offered. Managers implement changes such as modifying layouts and facilities to enable customers experience the attra ctiveness of nearby features that promote satisfaction (Enz 2009). Moreover, hotels capture natural features of their home countries such as landscape, mountains, and wild animals to market their services. Images of these features accompany advertisements or are used to beautify the hotel structures. People interested in these features visit the hotels, enjoy attractiveness, and consume substances offered. Moreover, some hotels partner with tourist agencies to direct interested customers to explore local heritage. Hotels complement the tourist agencies by providing accommodation for the visitors (Dahlstrom et al. 2009). Similarly, the people touring different places in a country provide market for hotel services and facilities. The two sectors sub-sectors are interdependent. Hotels take advantage of the tourism services to enhance their marketing campaigns. Hospitality firms partner with the tourism agencies to enable tourists travel to sites with ease (Tanford, Raab, Kim 2012). Partnerships with other businesses allow hotels to incorporate travel features in their marketing commercials. The tourism communities access the information and plan to seek accommodation services from these hotels. Firms that exploit opportunities of partnering with travel firms embrace the diversity of local heritage through the marketing practices. Consequently, they can attract more customers including fo reign tourists. Even though the hotels do not manage the tourism sites, they benefit from associations with these agencies by receiving more clients who improve the revenue levels. Without the partnerships, some tourists seek accommodation services elsewhere, and hence hotels realize reduced revenues for the hotel. Recommendations Other hotels incorporate home concepts in their marketing operations to attract more visitors and realize sustainable profits. Shangri-La Hotel does not apply these aspects extensively and therefore has untapped opportunities to grow its customer base. The hotel would implement home ideas that fit with its operations (Rao 2014). Despite this, many practices are applicable in the Shangri-La hotel. However, this report recommends for implementation of most promising attributes. Firstly, the hotel needs to introduce more local dishes and drinks in the menu. Shangri-La Hotel Sydney has a variety of food and beverage products from Australia and international markets. Adopting more Australian cuisines would help many people perceive the hotel like other local companies. Shangri-La can take advantage of its global presence to reach and inspire people to visit the Australian branch and enjoy a broad range of domestic foods. People from other countries can plan to visit the hotel to enjoy Aus tralian delicacies. Moreover, customers from other regions in the country can visit the hotel to gain experiences and consume local dishes (Wyshak 2014). Providing more Australian cuisines is desirable to earn favorable perceptions from the people. Although Shangri-La is a world-class hotel, many people can view it as similar to other firms based on the range of local foods offered. Another strategy to ensure the Shangri-La hotel applies more home practices is through the formation of partnerships with local tourist firms. Through the partnerships, Shangri-La hotel would use features of Australian heritage such as tourism sites, wild animals, and natural landscapes to attract many people (Crossley 2011). The hotel is based in Sydney city that receives many foreign and local visitors. By utilizing association with locals, many people would adopt the brand like the domestic firms. Working together with locals and using home features portrays the hotel company as supportive to the domestic environment. Local groups of people can approach the hotel as if it has Australian roots that enhance chances of realizing increased sales (Enz, 2009). Through the partnerships, the hotel would also provide easy access to the tourist sites and fast transport means. The existing activities provide access to the airports and limit the number of tourists who can locate the hotel. Pa rtnerships would thus help increase number of visitors that ultimately lead to improved sales. Conclusion The firms in the global hotel industry utilize home concepts to promote their activities and deliver augmented experiences to the customers. Common attributes include the introduction of local foods and beverages, supporting local and cultural events, running corporate social responsibility programs, and partnerships with domestic players. These practices create a perception that the hotel values home features in a country, and in turn offer continued support by visiting the businesses to consume services or spa products provided. Shangri-La hotel needs to improve its home aspects to increase chances of receiving more visitors that raise the revenue levels. More appropriate practices for the Shangri-La hotel include widening the variety of local cuisines and partnering with domestic companies such as the tourist firms to directs visitors to the hotel. Adopting these capabilities encourages more people from the local as well as the international places to visit the hotel and experienc e fulfilling moments that heighten satisfaction levels. Therefore, Shangri-La Hotel Sydney has opportunities to utilize home concepts to improve marketing performances. Reference List Reference generated Bunda, R. B. 2014. The Business of Beds: An Exploration of Hotel and Hostel Business Strategy. Honors Scholar Theses. Paper 350. 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